Monday, April 7, 2014

Zalman Enav: Drawing the Lines in Sinai

Many of the people involved in the peace talks with Egypt in 1977-1979 were well-known figures in Israeli public life. But our latest project on the peace treaty introduced us to someone less renowned: Zalman Enav, a civilian volunteer who drew up the lines for the Israeli withdrawal in Sinai. His story shows how paradoxically, the Egyptian and Israeli generals, who had been fighting each other a short time before, understood one another better than the politicians quibbling over every legal point. It seems that the soldiers had a healthy respect for the other's military capacity, and wanted to do everything possible to prevent another round of fighting.

Mr. Enav is a Tel Aviv architect who planned many important building projects in Israel and abroad, especially in Africa and in Egypt (after the treaty). He joined the Palmach in 1946, and later advised the IDF on planning of army and air force bases. Zalman Enav built the homes of Arik Sharon at the Shikmim Farm and of Ezer Weizman in Caesariya and is still active today. We came across his name while looking for maps to illustrate the negotiations on withdrawal in Sinai, and later we read an account of his involvement in the peace process. In a telephone interview, Mr. Enav confirmed that account and added other fascinating details.

Zalman Enav's work on peace with Egypt began in the last stages of the Yom Kippur war, when he was serving at the advance command post of Arik Sharon. General Avraham Tamir, who was about to become the head of the IDF Planning Branch, took him from the front to Tel Aviv to start preparing for peace talks. At the talks with the Egyptians at the KM. 101 marker on the Cairo-Suez road Enav met General Taha Magdoub, the assistant of General Gamasy, the Egyptian chief of staff. He told Magdoub: "Bring me to Cairo and we'll soon finish the business" of preparing the maps. Magdoub replied: "It's too soon". They met again in Geneva to work on the Interim Agreement signed in September 1975. The Egyptians thought that Enav worked for the security services, as they could not understand what a volunteer was doing in such a post.

In January 1978, after Sadat's visit to Jerusalem, Enav did arrive in Cairo as a member of the Israeli delegation to the military talks with Egypt and met Magdoub again. The joint work of the military delegations continued over many months of ups and downs, crises and solutions and led to agreement on Israeli withdrawal in two stages and the division of Sinai into areas including demilitarized zones and limitation of forces.
The Israeli military delegation headed by Ezer Weizman, Chief of Staff Mordecai Gur
and Tamir meets the Egyptian delegation headed by General Gamasy in Cairo, January 1978
(Photograph: Yaa'cov Sa'ar, Government Press Office)
Enav was not at Camp David, but in October 1978 he was called to Washington "for a few days" to help prepare the final lines of the peace treaty on maps presented by the Americans. The talks dragged on for months due to disagreements caused by political pressure on the Egyptian and Israeli governments. Nevertheless, after a dramatic visit to the Middle East by US president Jimmy Carter, the treaty was signed 35 years ago last week.

Enav, who by now enjoyed the confidence of all parties, drew up the lines for all of them, watched by an Egyptian and an American officer. The maps were signed by Tamir and Magdoub in the State Department one day before the signing of the treaty on 26 March 1979. At the last minute, after Prime Minister Begin had agreed to advance the date of Israel's handing over the Alma oilfield as a gesture to Sadat, one of the maps had to be re-drawn and Enav had to work all night …In the ISA's digital publication on "Making Peace" in Hebrew you can see copies of the maps, including the most important one – Annex II, the international boundary between Egypt and Israel, which was fixed for the first time. In signing this map Egypt formally recognized the border and the state of Israel.

Zalman Enav at the White House, March 26, 1979
(Photograph: Zalman Enav)

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

"Had they known me in Israel, they would not have offered me this important position" -Albert Einstein

"All of our science when measured against reality is primitive and childish and yet it is the most valuable thing we have." - Albert Einstein

In November 1952, Dr Chaim Weizmann, the first President of Israel, passed away. The nation promptly prepared itself: The Israel Embassy in Washington issued directives for the mourning period, and Israeli citizens and Jews abroad began submitting names of important people whom they felt would be suitable to inherit the honoured position.

The Foreign Ministry was asked to assist in finding candidates, and so Ambassador Abba Eban approached Albert Einstein to ask if he would accept the offer to serve as President of Israel.

In his letter to the professor, Eban wrote that he was acting at the instructions of Premier Ben Gurion, reflecting the true sentiments of the Jewish people. He added that acceptance would require relocation to Israel and acceptance of Israeli nationality, but in appreciation of the importance and scope of his work he would be offered all that was necessary with the freedom of action to ensure the continuation of his scientific activity. Israel, Eban said, was geographically a small country but was destined for greatness in continuing its spiritual and intellectual tradition both past and present.
David Ben Gurion and Albert Einstein (National Photo Collection)
Upon receiving the invitation, Einstein replied in handwriting in English and German.

"I feel deeply moved by the offer of our state Israel, though also sad and abashed that it is impossible for me to accept this offer. Since all my life I have been dealing with the world of physics, I have neither the natural ability nor the experience necessary to deal with human beings and to carry out official functions. For these reasons, I do not feel able to fulfill the requirements of this great task, even were my advanced age not limiting my strength to an increasing extent. This situation is indeedextremely sad for me because my relation to the Jewish people has become my strongest human attachment ever since I reached compleate awerness of our precarious position among the nations."

He concluded with expressions of sympathy upon the death of Dr. Weizmann who had made great efforts to reach independence, and hoped that a suitable person would be found who could bear the great responsibility demanded by the position.

Einstein gave his letters in person to Minister David Goitein of the Washington Embassy who then sent a special report to Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett. Describing his meeting with the professor he quoted Einstein: (In Hebrew)

"Honestly I am very moved that the government and people of Israel want to appoint me their President but throughout my life I never did anything for the Jewish people and so do not merit this honor."

Their interesting discussion ranged over many topics such as Russian – American relations, Judaism, and education in the USA. In this connection Einstein said that if he had a son he would want him educated in Israel rather than in America, and so would benefit from its freedom of thought, education and independence.

Three years after he turned down the Presidency, he was given another opportunity to represent Israel at its Seventh Independence Day celebrations, but died before he could deliver what was his last speech.

At a meeting in Jerusalem to mark the centenary of Einstein's birth, Isaiah Berlin said in reference to his support for Zionism and Israel: "The fact that Einstein who allowed no departure from human decency, believed in this movement and this state unconditionally until his last breath, this fact is one of the most compelling moral testimonies that any state in this century could proudly exhibit, this is deeply meaningful."

The Knesset decided that March 14--Einstein's birthday--would be National Science Day. The Ministry of Science and Technology last year introduced a new initiative, "Popular Science," designed to bring lectures in popular science to the general public. This year there will be extensive activities around this date, by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Space.
Einstein on his first visit to the USA, 1921
Albert Einstein and his wife as part of a Zionist mission to the USA. Chaim Weizmann is second on left.

Thursday, March 27, 2014

Menachem Begin: "With Heavy Heart, But Head Held High"- Special Publication by the Archives to Mark the 35th Anniversary of the Peace Treaty with Egypt


Yesterday the ISA launched a publication in a new format on the negotiations with Egypt leading up to Camp David, the conference itself, and the talks before the signing of the peace treaty in Washington on March 26, 1979. The publication includes 67 documents, 18 of them in English, photographs, caricatures, video clips, maps and other audiovisual material, all presented in an app for download for tablets and also available on the Internet.


This was a very exciting project for the Archives, and the aim was to make our materials available to a wider public in a more dynamic and attractive form. The publication is in Hebrew only, but an English version with a selection of illustrations can be seen on our English website.

The new format allows us to give the well known events of the peace process a deeper dimension, as we see the pictures and hear the voices of the actors in the drama. It focuses on the less well known personalities, as well as the "Big Three" leaders, Prime Minister Begin, Egyptian President Sadat and US President Carter. It shows how the distrust which characterized relations between the former enemies was gradually overcome, convincing them that genuine peace was possible and making it possible for Moshe Dayan to reverse his famous saying and to declare from the Knesset rostrum: "Peace without Sharm el Sheikh is better than Sharm el Sheikh without peace."







Tuesday, February 25, 2014

The sinking of MV Struma - February 1942

On February 24, 1942, a ship was sunk in the Black Sea, just off the entrance to the Bosphorus straits. On the same day, nine other ships were sunk in the Atlantic Ocean, in what is known today as "the Battle of the Atlantic"--the German U-boat war against shipping to and from Britain. Other ships were sunk in the Pacific Ocean--three days later came the dramatic battles of Java sea, Sunda Straits and the Second Java Sea (all Allied defeats). The ship sunk in the Black Sea, the MV Struma, wasn't carrying supplies or troops – it was carrying Jewish refugees, escaping the "Final solution," the extermination of the Jewish people in Europe. The sinking of the Struma is regarded as one of the greatest maritime disasters of World War II, and the largest one with only civilian casualties (the three other major disasters: the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff, the Goya and the Armenia, also carried military personnel).
A photo of a ship believed to be The Struma (Wikipedia)
Struma was a river boat operating in the Danube River, and was built in 1867. It was converted to a livestock ferry sometime in the 20th century. It was a rickety ship in bad technical condition which became even worse after an unreliable engine was installed. The ship was purchased by the New (Revisionist) Zionist party in Rumania in the purpose of ferrying a group of immigrants (Olim) from Romania to British-mandated Palestine. A group of 300 Rumanian Jews registered for the trip, but the numbers swelled after the rise of the Anti-Jewish laws and persecutions in Romania and the filtering news of the killing of Jews in Poland and the Soviet Union. (Here's a report written to the Jerusalem District commissioner, probably by Moshe Sharett, the head of the Political department of the Jewish agency.)

The ship left Constanta port in Romania on December 11,1941, en route to Istanbul. It was assisted by a tug boat - a sign of its bad mechanical condition. Its engine broke down several times during the journey, and a trip that should have taken 14 hours took three days.  The Turkish authorities refused to allow the ship's passengers to disembark, despite the worsening conditions on the ship. There was an acute shortage in food and drinking water, despite help provided by the Jewish community of Istanbul. The passengers suffered from cold, filth and hunger. All that time, a frantic negotiation took place between the Jewish Agency and the Joint Distribution Committee with the Turkish government and the British government (and the British Palestine government) trying to allow the passengers to land in Istanbul and reach Palestine. Both governments were resolved not to allow any of the Jews in the ship into Turkey or to Palestine. The British refused even to subtract the number of the Olim in the Struma from the overall number of Immigrants allowed under the limitations of the 1939 White Paper. At the same time, the British pressured the Turks to return the ship to Romania in order to block future immigration from the Balkans. Britain's High Commissioner in Palestine, Harold MacMichael, was especially adamant in his refusal to compromise on any offer of the Jewish Agency.

On February 23, 1942, after 10 weeks in Istanbul's harbor, the Turks had had enough. They forcibly towed the Struma outside of the harbor and into the Black Sea. Several hours later, in the early morning of February 24th, a Soviet submarine (later identified as the ShCh-213) launched a torpedo which blew the Struma out of the water. Her entire crew and all her passengers, save one, perished. The lone survivor, David Stoliar, was picked up by a Turkish fishing boat several hours later.
A map of the Bosporus straits. The number 2 represents the spot where the Struma was sunk (Wikipedia)
The sinking of the Struma caused a storm of protests and anger in the Jewish community in British mandated Palestine. In a letter to the chief secretary of the Palestine government, John Macpherson, Moshe Sharett blamed the British government for its discrimination against Jewish refugees while allowing the entrance of non-Jewish refugees without any limit, and demanded that Jewish refugees should be allowed to enter Palestine without limitation, since they were escaping persecution and murder. (The Israel State Archives used this letter in its publication Moshe Sharett – The Second Prime Minister, Selected Documents, 1894 – 1965.) The IZL – the National Military Organization (known as the "Irgun") underground published a "Wanted for Murder" poster with the picture of Macmichael on it (it tried to assassinate him in 1944) for his responsibility for the Struma disaster.

The Eichmann trial in 1961 revealed another side of the Struma disaster – the German side. In a letter to Eichmann's headquarters in Berlin, his representative in Romania, Richter, reported to him on his conversation with Mihai Antonescu, vice president and foreign minister of Romania, regarding the efforts of Jews to escape from Romania. Antonescu explained that he did not allow the Struma to leave Romania and her departure was approved by the head of the Siguranta, the Romanian secret police, who was sacked subsequently. The report notes that since the Turks were not willing to let the refugees enter Turkey, they would be sent back to Romania. (The letter shown here is a copy of the original letter in German. It's from the Israel's National Police Unit Bureau 06, which was responsible for preparing the police investigation, prior to the Eichmann trial in 1961.)

The Struma was another terrible chapter in efforts of Jews to escape from Europe during the Holocaust. It was another symbol of the helplessness and the trap in which the Jews of Europe found themselves. They could not escape their tormentors and pursuers and were not protected by the enemies of their enemies, which should have helped them, but instead sent them back to a certain death.

Monday, January 27, 2014

45 Years Since the Public Execution of 9 Jews in Baghdad

Today marks 45 years since nine Iraqi Jews were hanged in Baghdad's central square. The murdered Jews were: Ezra Naji Zilkha, Fuad Gabay, Yakub Gorji Namordi, Daud Haskil Barukh Dalal, Daud Ghali, Haskil Saleh Haskil, Sabah Hayim, Naim Khaduri, and Charles Rafael Horesh. Their hanging was a nadir in the persecution of Iraqi Jews, but persecutions did not end with them, and in August 1969 two more Jews were hanged, and scores more were arrested and never seen again, presumed murdered. Today, few if any Jews remain in Iraq – remnants of an illustrious Jewish community that numbered more than 150,000 members in the middle of the 20th century.

The general background of the persecution of the Jews in Arab countries is intertwined with the creation of the state of Israel and Israel's war of Independence in 1948-9. Until the 20th century, Jews in Arab countries were usually treated as inferiors, in accordance with Laws of the Khalif Omar from the 7th century. The encroachment of Western powers to the Middle East brought with it an improvement in the status of the Jews. The resulting growing conflict between Jews and Arabs in Israel/Palestine from the 1920's onwards soon began to influence the condition of Jews in Arab countries. In July 1941, just after the British defeated the Nazi-influenced Iraqi government, an Arab mob (with many soldiers and policemen in its ranks) committed the "Farhud" – a pogrom against the Jews of Baghdad. Almost 200 Jews were murdered in this atrocity.

Israel's War of Independence worsened the conditions of Jewish communities in the Arab world, and Iraq was no exception. Iraq sent an expeditionary force to invade Israel on May 15, 1948, and an Iraqi general commanded the "Arab Liberation Army" (an Arab volunteer force, organized by the Arab League to prevent the creation of Israel). The Iraqi government started to implement discriminatory measures against Jews in accordance with a law drafted by the political department of the Arab League. Jewish civil servants were fired (Jews had served in senior government posts in Iraq; the first Minister of Finance of independent Iraq was Jewish), doctors could not receive their licenses, Jewish banks were not allowed to change foreign currency, and new and heavier taxes were imposed on the Jews. Jews were not allowed to leave Iraq for more than a year and those that left had their property confiscated and their citizenship nullified. In September 1948, a rich Jewish businessman, Shafiq Ades, was hanged under false accusations. The persecutions caused many Jews to secretly cross the border to Iran and from there escape to Israel. In December 1949, Tawfiq al-Suwaidi replaced Nuri el Said as Prime Minister, and conditions became easier for the Jews. After a secret negotiation with El-Suwaidi, Jews were allowed to leave Iraq without hindrance, and 120,000 of the Jews in Iraq chose to come on Aliyah to Israel in Operation Ezra and Nehemiah.

The restrictions on those Jews who did not leave Iraq remained, and they could not leave the country to go to Israel, but could depart for other countries. The restrictions persisted until the military coup in 1958. During the rule of General Abd al-Karim Qasim (1958-1963) most of them were lifted, and Jews were treated better and some of their confiscated property was returned. Things changed for the worse after the military coup of 1963 and subsequent coups until the 1968 coup of the Baath party. All restrictions were reinstated and more were added – Jews were required to carry yellow identification cards, banned from leaving Iraq altogether, and subject to many more harsh laws.

The Six Day War made things even worse for the remaining Jews in Iraq. Iraq always described itself as a vanguard of Arab nationalism and declared continually its desire to destroy Israel. During the war, the Israeli air force attacked the H3 air base in western Iraq and the Iraqi expeditionary force sent to Jordan did not arrive in time to play a role in the war. One unit that did come close to the Jordan River was badly mauled by the Israeli air force and retreated. The Iraqis vented their frustration from the results of the war on the Jews of Iraq: Their telephones were disconnected, Jews were fired from their jobs, shops under Jewish ownership were closed, and Jews were barred from traveling from one city to another. Leaving Iraq, banned already before the war, was now impossible. The small Jewish community lived in constant fear.

The Iraqi expeditionary force remained in Jordan and participated in the "War of Attrition" (1968-70) by bombarding Israeli Kibbutzim and villages in the Jordan valley and helping Palestinian terrorists attack Israel. In retaliation, the Iraqi expeditionary force was attacked by the Israeli air force on December 1968 for 4 consecutive days, which inflicted heavy casualties. The bodies of the dead soldiers were brought to Baghdad in a mass funeral. The popular call for revenge was exploited by the newly formed Baath regime (The Baath party overthrew the government in July 17 1968), and it put a group of Jews, arrested on bogus counts of espionage in October, on trial before a military kangaroo court. The military court found them guilty of espionage for Israel and sentenced them to death. On January 27, 1969, 14 defendants (9 of them Jews) were executed in Baghdad and in Basra. The Baath regime called on the public to celebrate the execution, and half a million people celebrated under the hanging bodies in Baghdad's central square.

After the arrest of the Jews in Iraq, their relatives turned to Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs for help in receiving information on their fate and to try and organize their release. Israel turned to different states and international organizations in order to save the detainees, while emphasizing the fact that they were innocent and that it was clear that the Jews could not be spies due to the isolation and segregation of Jews from the other parts of Iraqi society. Appeals were made to the Secretary General of the UN, U-Thant, The Red Cross and to different governments, friendly to Iraq, such as Turkey. These appeals did not help.

The public hangings came as a painful shock in Israel and its Iraqi citizens (Babylonian Jews as they are traditionally known). Prayer and memorial services were organized, such as the one in this newsreel, showing the late Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (then the chief rabbi of Tel Aviv) speaking from a podium. Rabbi Yosef was himself of Iraqi descent. A special mourning session was held in the Knesset, and Prime Minister Levi Eshkol in one of his last public appearances--Eshkol passed away on 26 February 1969--said in his speech: "The hangings have illuminated the fate of the remnants of the Babylonian Jewry with nightmarish light. The land of Iraq has become one great prison for its Jewish remnants. Our brethren are prey to terror in the hands of villains….If there is a conscience in this world, let it voice awaken to immediate need to rescue the remnants of the Jewish communities in Arab countries".
Minister Without Portfolio Menachem Begin addressing a student's protest rally against the Iraqi hanging of Jews, at the campus of the Tel Aviv University (GPO - Fritz Cohen)

Part of a crowd attending a protest rally in Ramat Gan against the execution of Jews in Iraq (GPO - Fritz Cohen)
The Israel State Archives holds many documents regarding the hangings in Iraq. The state of Israel tried to help Jews in Arab states, especially after the Six Day War. The defeated Arab countries saw the remnants of the Jewish communities in their countries as easy scapegoats for their military, political and social failure. Jews were jailed, persecuted, tortured, murdered and hanged (especially in Iraq). The coordinator of the efforts to help Arab Jewry was Deputy General Manager of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Middle Eastern affairs, Shlomo Hillel (later Minister of Police and Speaker of the Knesset). Hillel had a personal stake in this matter – he was formerly an aliyah operative from Iraq who participated in many clandestine aliyah operations.

As mentioned, appeals were made to the UN and International organizations. Appeals were made to governments and rulers by Jewish communities and organizations – Indian Jews met the Indian Foreign minister, for instance, which proved fruitless due to India's pro-Arab stance. A similar appeal was made to the Shah of Iran. Another approach was demonstrations and other forms of public protest. These actions prompted different governments to agree to accept Jews from Iraq. Another country that lent a hand to save the Jews of Iraq, although it was not approached to do so, was France. Relations between Israel and France were strained, ever since France imposed an embargo on exporting weapons to Israel just weeks before (not to mention the French attitude towards Israel before, during and after the Six Day War), after Israel raided the Beirut National Airport in retaliation of an attack for an El Al airliner in Athens in December 1968. The French government pressured the Iraqi government to release Jewish detainees and allow Jews to leave Iraq. At a government meeting in early February 1969, Foreign Minister Abba Eban estimated that the French action was meant to stop the wave of protests and anti-French denunciations in the USA, initiated by Jewish organizations.

According to different sources, such as Israeli journalist and researcher Shlomo Nakdimon, Israel used the Mossad's covert operation in Iraqi Kurdistan (which was helping the forces of Mullah Mustapha Barazani fight the Iraqi army) to smuggle Jews from Iraq to Iran and from there to Israel.

The persecution of the Jewish community in Iraq came again to public attention last year. After the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, American troops found in the flooded basement of the building of the Iraqi secret police a large collection of Jewish Torah scrolls and holy books, as well as the Jewish communal archive, confiscated by the Iraqi government. The books were transferred to the U.S. for restoration. Now the Iraqi government demands the return of the collection to Iraq, arguing that it is an Iraqi cultural property. At the same time, Jews from Iraq living in the U.S. demand that the collection remain, as Iraq has no right to demand the collection, given that it was stolen from the Jewish community.

Thursday, January 16, 2014

Golda Meir and Anwar Sadar Exchange Messages, January 1974

"When I made my [political] initiative in 1971, I meant it; when I threatened war, I meant it; when I now talk of permanent peace between us, I mean it." This was the message from President Anwar Sadat given to Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir by US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger shortly before the signing of the Disengagement Agreement between Israel and Egypt (Sinai I) on January 18, 1974. You can see it on our website in a short publication of 6 documents in English to mark the 40th anniversary of the agreement.

The next day Golda replied that she hoped that their contact through Kissinger would prove to be a turning point in their relations, and repeated Sadat's words: "When I talk of permanent peace between us I mean it." Only three months after the Yom Kippur War, when they had led their countries in a bloody and costly conflict, the two leaders exchanged messages expressing goodwill and the desire for peace between them.

Defense Minister Moshe Dayan was the first person to propose a separation of forces in a government meeting on October 27, 1973. The war had just ended, but sporadic firing continued and continued to bring casualties. The smoke still lingered on the battlefields and a grieving Israel was anxious for a ceasefire and a political solution which would allow the IDF to withdraw from its dangerously overextended lines on the western bank of the Suez Canal. Over the coming weeks, the plan underwent a series of changes in talks with the Egyptians at the 101 Kilometer talks and through Secretary Kissinger, until it reached its final form in a shuttle by Kissinger between Cairo and Jerusalem. The signing of the agreement marked a historic change in the relations between Israel and Egypt and the first withdrawal from territories occupied in the Six Day War.

Ten days later Sadat and Golda again exchanged messages on the need to advance a disengagement agreement with Syria. These messages also appear in the publication together with the text of the Sinai I agreement and its secret annexes, and the memorandum of understanding between the US and Israel. We've already talked here about the negotiations with Syria and the opposition to them in Israel. On May 31, the agreement with Syria was signed, the last act of Golda Meir's government following her resignation.

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Ariel Sharon, 1928-2014, Israel's Eleventh Prime Minister: Three Recordings from his Military Career

On January 11, 2014, Ariel "Arik" Sharon passed away, after being in a coma for eight years. Sharon was Israel's eleventh prime minister, a government minister, a Knesset member representing the Likud, and the founder and leader of the Kadima party, Before entering politics he was a general in the IDF, one of the commanders of the paratroopers unit, founder of the 101 special unit and OC Southern Command.
OC Southern Command Sharon gives an explanation to former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion on a visit to the lines near the Suez Canal, 27 January 1971. (Photograph: IDF Spokesman, Government Press Office)
In memory of Sharon, the Israel State Archives presents here two video clips and one audio recording from the period of his service in the Southern Command. In December 1969, Sharon was appointed to command Israel's southern front, at the height of the War of Attrition between Israel and Egypt on the Suez Canal. Sharon introduced more dynamic defensive methods, rather than the static approach represented by the Bar Lev line of outposts along the Canal. In August 1970, a ceasefire was reached between Israel and Egypt. In 1971, Sharon carried out a major operation against terrorism in the Gaza Strip, using aggressive methods and harsh measures which aroused considerable criticism. He succeeded in almost entirely eradicating the terrorists and bringing peace and quiet to the Strip. Sharon remained in Southern Command until July 1973, when he was replaced by Shmuel Gorodish Gonen.

The first films shows a visit to an outpost on the Suez Canal by Defense Minister Moshe Dayan accompanied by Maj. General Sharon in August 1971:


The second clip is an audio recording in Hebrew of commanders in the Six Day War talking about their experiences and the reasons for the victory, among them Arik Sharon, then a division commander (June 1967):


The final recording shows OC Southern Command Sharon visiting a Bedouin encampment, accompanied by Gorodish and other officers, and awarding a war ribbon to one of the inhabitants (November 1972):